Education in Afghanistan - An Overview
Afghanistan is still the 15th least developed nation in the world, and suffers from ongoing violence due to the Taliban insurgency. But from the year 2002, Afghanistan is under rebuilding process and in spite of setbacks due to Taliban insurgency, the Education segment is strengthening.
In 2012, the supply of students far exceeded the sum of employed qualified teachers, there were insufficient schools. Approximately 4,500 schools are being built according to a recent government report. 40 percent of schools were conducted in permanent buildings. The rest held classes in the UNICEF shelters or were "desert schools" with students and teachers gathering in the desert near a village. By 2013 there were 10.5 million students attending schools in Afghanistan, a country which has around 27.5 million people living in it.
According to the reports of Nation Strategic Plan for Education in Afghanistan, by 2020 the Ministry is in process to increase enrollment rates for girls and boys by 60% and 75% respectively. Further, they also plan to add a new curriculum in secondary schools, increase the number of teachers by 50% and also make at least 70% teachers pass a competency test.
Types of Education System
Two separate systems of education exist in Afghanistan. They instruct the spiritual teachings of the Koran, reading, writing, and arithmetic. Joyous one, taught by the mullahs, who conduct schools in the village mosques. The other system was introduced in Afghanistan's 1964 constitution and provided for free and compulsory education at all levels. The education system suffered tremendously as a result of the Taliban insurgency
Pre Primary and Primary Education System
Two education systems exist in Afghanistan. Religious instruction is the duty of clerics at mosques, while the government provides free academic education at state schools. From age 7 to age 13 pupils attend primary schools where they learn the fundamentals of reading, writing, arithmetic and their home culture. Between 2001 and 2010, primary school enrollment rose from around 1 million to nearly 7 million and the proportion of girls from virtually zero to 37%.
Three years of middle school follow where academic style education continues. Students must pass a test at the conclusion of this phase if they wish to study further. Secondary education is divided into compulsory intermediate/lower secondary education (grade 7-9) and upper secondary education (grade 10-12).At secondary school students have a choice between continuing with an academic path for 3 years that could perhaps lead on to university, or study subjects such as applied agriculture, aeronautics, arts, commerce and teacher training instead. Both programs culminate in a baccalaureate examination.
The Ministry of Higher Education has a very important role to play in many areas and especially in the area of organising and directing the higher education system. The Afghan Ministry of Higher Education is the Government ministry that is in charge of regulating, expanding and developing Afghanistan's institutions of higher education. It is responsible for the training of teachers and for establishing a national higher education curriculum as well as special education programs, in-service training, and promoting further education for university faculty members.
Still Afghanistan is one of the worst affected countries by violence against schools, Violence on students one of the highest in the world. Prevented nearly 5 million Afghan children from attending school in the year 2010.