Academic Year and Language
In Afghanistan school year extends from early March to November in the cold areas and from September to June in the warmer regions. Primary education comprises of six years duration. To avail Secondary education a candidate may need to appear for admission test. After completion of 12 year of school education candidates can chose for vocational programs or college education in different study streams. The main language of instructions are: Pashto/Pushto, English or Persian
Vocational education is offered in institutes which train executives. Graduates of eighth grade, aged 14 to 16 are admitted, and training for six years in specific fields is given to them. There are also Institutes proposing courses in Industrial Management, Banking and Finance, and Telecommunications as well as other subjects. All the instructions were given in the mother-tongue only.
University level education have stages as follows:
- First stage of education in university includes Bachelor's Degree: In higher education, first stage leads to Education, Arts, Science, Social Science, and Agriculture graduation, and a Bachelor's Degree is awarded after four years (Veterinary Medicine and Engineering for five years; Medicine for seven years (including the one year of pre-medical and one year of internship)). The language of instruction is English in the university level.
- Second stage of university studies includes Master's Degree: At the master’s level additional two years' education is provided following the Bachelor's Degree (three to four years in Medicine). Also there exists an entrance examination. Postgraduate Candidates must score high at Bachelor level and need to pass an entrance examination. The exams are conducted in English language.
- Third stage of university studies includes Doctorate: Doctorate (Doctori) programmes in Arts, Architecture, Natural Sciences, Engineering, and Social Sciences are conversed after three years' study following the program of Master's Degree. The doctorate program is instructed by the language of English.
- The difference in language affected the grades of the students and created an unsafe educational environment. Hence, the educationalists of the World advices to follow bilingual languages while instructing the students.
Language of Instruction
- The major languages of instruction in Afghanistan's Schools and Universities are Pashto/ Pushto, Dari, English and Persian.
- At Non- University Level Education, vocational education is offered in institutes wherein, major instructions are given in the mother tongue only - Pashto and Dari.
- At University level, the language of instruction at baccalaureate is English.
- In Master's degree, major emphasis is given to English language.
- Finally, at Doctorate level, the medium of language is again English.